Archivo para la categoría ‘Art铆culos’

驴Sab铆as que en 1952….apareci贸 el primer avi贸n a reacci贸n?

Lunes, 20 de mayo de 2019 Twitter Sin comentarios

Fueron de nuevo los adelantos tecnol贸gicos militares aportados por la II Guerra Mundial los que abrieron una nueva etapa del transporte a茅reo comercial. Los nuevos y potentes motores radiales y los sistemas de cabinas presurizadas permitieron a los aviones estrella de la 茅poca, el Lockheed L-49聽Constellation y el DC-6, superar las condiciones meteorol贸gicas adversas, alcanzar los varios miles de kil贸metros de autonom铆a, y superar los 500 km/h de velocidad. La aparici贸n en 1952 del primer avi贸n a reacci贸n, el Comet I, marc贸 uno de los puntos de inflexi贸n de la aviaci贸n comercial internacional.

Descubre en este art铆culo de Luis Utrilla Navarro, un resumen de los 煤ltimos y primeros 100 a帽os de la historia del transporte a茅reo en Espa帽a.

100 a帽os de Transporte A茅reo en Espa帽a

Revista Enarte #5 / Fundaci贸n ENAIRE

Gu铆a Urgencias de “Enfermedad Tromboemb贸lica Venosa” y Trombosis Viajero

S谩bado, 4 de mayo de 2019 Twitter Sin comentarios

En la literatura m茅dica se hab铆an descrito casos de Trombosis Venosa Profunda TVP y viajes en avi贸n por John Homans,聽 que fueron publicados en el 鈥淣ew England Journal of Medicine鈥 en 1954. Asimismo el caso m谩s prominente fue el del presidente Richard Nixon quien en 1974 durante un largo viaje a Europa del Este y a la Uni贸n Sovi茅tica sufriera edema y dolor en el miembro inferior izquierdo, siendo diagnosticado de TVP.

驴Verdad que nos suena la relaci贸n de la TVP con los viajes?

Pues si聽 quieres repasar el riesgo de ETV (Enfermedad tromboemb贸lica) para pacientes m茅dicos o quir煤rgicos, revisar la Escala de Wells o la Escala revisada de Ginebra; as铆 como los algoritmos diagn贸sticos seg煤n Riesgo y los algoritmos terap茅uticos, incluidas las pautas de anti coagulaci贸n o las indicaciones de fibrinolisis, 茅sta es tu Gu铆a publicada en el 2015 por la SEMES (Sociedad Espa帽ola de Medicina de Urgencias y Emergencias).

Gu铆a Manejo de Enfermedad Tromboemb贸lica

SEMES 2015

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The NASA twins study

Domingo, 21 de abril de 2019 Google Scholar Sin comentarios

To date, 559 humans have been flown into space, but long-duration (>300 days) missions are rare (n = 8 total). Long-duration missions that will take humans to Mars and beyond are planned for the2020s and 2030s; therefore, comprehensive studies are needed. The selection of one of a pair of monozygotic (identical) twin astronauts for NASA鈥檚 first 1-year mission has enabled聽 to compare the impact of the spaceflight environment on one twin to the simultaneous impact of the Earth environment on a genetically matched subject.

The conclusion is as following: “Given that the majority of the biological and human health variables remained stable, or returned to baseline, after a 340-day space mission, these data suggest that human health can be mostly sustained over this duration of spacefligh”

Do not miss the whole article published very recently in Science

The NASA聽 Twins Study :A multidimensional analysis of a year long human spaceflight

Garret-Bakelman et al / Science 364 / April 2019

Screening for Sleep Apnea in Obese Pilots

Jueves, 7 de marzo de 2019 Google Scholar Sin comentarios

It has long been appreciated that sleep apnea results in poor quality sleep, and that poor quality sleep is associated with daytime fatigue and decrements in performance. However, the relationship between sleep apnea and poor performance, including risk for accidents is not as well understood.

The purpose of this article is to review the basic epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of sleep apnea, including major risk factors for apnea, such as body mass index (BMI), and to look at what is known about the impact of sleep apnea on performance in transportation related occupations.

Sleep Apnea in Obese Pilots

Ruskin KJ, Caldwell JA, Caldwell JL, Boudreau EA. Screening for sleep apnea in morbidly obese pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015; 86(9): 835 鈥 841

Fisioterapia y efectos de la microgravedad sobre la condici贸n f铆sica de los astronautas

Jueves, 28 de febrero de 2019 Google Scholar Sin comentarios

Conocido por todos es que la exposici贸n a la microgravedad聽 produce cambios cardio-vascvulares, osteomusculares y neuromusculares, susceptibles de intervenci贸n fisioterapeutica. Este art铆culo publicado en 2018聽 por聽Alfonso Mantilla, fisioterapeuta de la Universidad del Rosario en Colombia y Jaime Martinez en la revista Iberoamericana de Ciencias de la Actividad F铆sica y del Deporte , describen de forma esquem谩tica聽 -a trav茅s del estudio de 34 art铆culos seleccionados-, los efectos de la microgravedad y los protocolos de entrenamiento que pueden ser 煤tiles par el entrenamiento de astronautas a trav茅s de la actividad f铆sica.

Efectos de la microgravedad sobre la condici贸n f铆sica de los astronautas : 驴Existe intervenci贸n terap茅utica?

Rev. Ib. CC. Act. Fis. Dep. 2018 . 7(2): 53-60

Hindsight28 : ATC Change

Lunes, 25 de febrero de 2019 admin Sin comentarios

Eamonn Brennan was appointed by the 41 Member States of EUROCONTROL to lead the organisation as its Director General from 1 January 2018. As he highlights, there are many sayings that lead to the point聽 that change in聽 Air Traffic Control聽 is probably necessary, and it is better to embrace it and drive the change rather than resist it. The demand continues to grow, with over 16 million flights forecast by 2040. Our current systems, our current ways of working, will not be able to cope with these traffic levels, therefore there is no other choice but to change

Changing to adapt and adapting to change

Hindsight28 (Winter 2018/19)

EASA new rules: “A question of Psychology”

Lunes, 18 de febrero de 2019 Twitter Sin comentarios

In July 2018 EASA released the outcome of two years of deliberation resulting from the response to the Germanwings tragedy in 2015. EASA rules cover three areas: Psychological testing of pre-employment, access to a pychological suport resource and substance abuse testing on a random basis. Of the three, the substance abuse requirement is arguably the most salient.The issues of psychological assessment and psychological support are more challenging to immediately ground in airline operations focused through the lens of the Germanwings tragedy. Psychological support for civil aircrew is not a new initiative in many ways and聽 psychological assessment requirement though聽 not 100% predictive, it could well allow for a general risk categorisation and individual monitoring…

MARC ATHERTON, RAeS Human Factors Group (HFG), considers the implications of EASA鈥檚 new rules on pilot mental fitness:

A Question of Psychology

Royal Aeronautical Society聽 / February 2019

2016 FAA Aerospace Medical Certification Statistical Handbook

Viernes, 15 de febrero de 2019 FAA CAMI Library Sin comentarios

The biennial Aerospace Medical Certification Statistical Handbook reports descriptive characteristics of all active U.S. civil aviation airmen and the aviation medical examiners (AMEs) that perform the required medical examinations. Results:聽 Airmen: As of December 31, 2016, there were 560,152 medically certified airmen age 16 and older, and 36.8%, 19.8%, and 43.5% were issued a 1st Class, 2nd Class, and 3rd Class medical certificate, respectively. Across all medical classes, the average age was 43 years, and 93.4% of the airmen were male. The mean BMI for both females and males was 24.1 and 27.2, respectively. Six percent of issued certificates required a special issuance. The most commonly reported medical condition was hypertension with medication, at 10.4%. Aviation medical examiners: Of the 2,955 active AMEs, 93.3% were civilian, 0.6% federal, 6.1% military, and 0.1% other. Of these, 47.7% reported their medical specialty as family practice. Their average age was 60.8 years and 87.4% were male

2016 Aerospace Medical Certification Statistical Handbook

Valerie J. Skaggs Ann I. Norris

Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI)

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)聽 Oklahoma City, OK 73125 / Published May 2018

An overview of Aerospace Medicine

Mi茅rcoles, 13 de febrero de 2019 Google Scholar Sin comentarios

Space medicine is fundamental to the human exploration of space. It supports survival, function and performance in this challenging and potentially lethal environment. It is international, intercultural and interdisciplinary, operating at the boundaries of exploration, science, technology and medicine. Space medicine is also the latest UK specialty to be recognized by the Royal College of Physicians in the UK and the General Medical Council.

This review introduces the field of space medicine and describes the different types of spaceflight, environmental challenges, associated medical and physiological effects, and operational medical considerations.

It is clear, concise and easy to read, advisable for beginners and experts alike.

An overview of Aerospace Medicine

British Journal of Anaesthesia, 119 (S1): i143鈥搃153 (2017)

P. D. Hodkinson1,2,*, R. A. Anderton3 , B. N. Posselt1 and K. J. Fong4

1 Royal Air Force Centre of Aviation Medicine, RAF Henlow, Bedfordshire 2 Division of Anaesthesia, University of Cambridge,聽 3 Civil Aviation Authority, Gatwick Airport South, Aviation House, Crawley, Gatwick聽 and 4 University College London Hospital,

*Corresponding author. E-mail:

Problemas de Sue帽o en 脪rbita de los astronautas / On Orbit Sleep Problems of Astronauts

Mi茅rcoles, 6 de febrero de 2019 Google Scholar Sin comentarios

Hoy os traemos un interesante resumen sobre los problemas que los astronautas tienen en relaci贸n con los vuelos orbitales. En 2015 la NASA public贸 que la media de horas de sue帽o de los astronautas era de unas 6h/d铆a, por debajo de lo recomendable y adem谩s con una calidad inferior al descanso terrestre. Las causas que se invocan聽 son muchas y variadas: temperaturas poco confortables y ruido ambiental , aislamiento y confinamiento en聽 espacios reducidos, incomodidad de los sacos de dormir, falta de se帽ales propioceptivas familiares, falta de se帽ales circadianas (alteraciones en los “time givers”). Y sus efectos muy conocidos tanto a nivel fisiol贸gico como psicol贸gico, u operacional. Por recordar, un solo detalle, el 70% de los astronautas usan medicaci贸n para mitigar estas alteraciones. Otras medidas para intentar聽aliviar estos problemas聽 son mejorar la calidad medioambiental de la cabina, y designar razonables ciclos de trabajo/descanso, as铆 como聽 apoyo psicol贸gico y soporte social, en astronautas entrenados y formados para enfrentarse a ambientes extremos.

Muy recomendable leer completo el art铆culo:

On-orbit sleep problems of astronauts and countermeasures (Military Medical Research 2018 ;5:17)

B Wu, Y Wang, X Wu,et al

  • State Key Laboratory of Space Medicine Fundamentals and Application, China Astronaut Research and Training Center, No. 26 Beiqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100094, People鈥檚 Republic of China